Core Nutritionals ZAP 20 Servings Electric Lemon-Lime
Physiological Properties and Effects:
Tyrosine is amongst a class of amino acids known as ‘non-essential’ amino acids, so called because the body can produce them endogenously, and it is therefore not essential to consume dietary tyrosine. That said, tyrosine is also what is known as a conditionally-essential amino acid; conditionally-essential because, along with glucose and ammonia, the synthesis of tyrosine additionally requires adequate levels of phenylalanine. Once synthesized, tyrosine is one of the most critical amino acids, given its prominent role as a substrate in the synthesis of the catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, in addition to both T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine) thyroid hormones.
In studies on stress modulation, tyrosine has been demonstrated to reverse stress-induced norepinephrine depletion and the depressant-behavioral effects normally associated with it. In simpler terms, tyrosine may, in certain conditions, dampen the extent to which norepinephrine is removed from the bloodstream during a stress event. In simpler terms still, tyrosine may help to mitigate the sense of depletion and fatigue felt at the end of a workout.
Tyrosine may also play important metabolic functions, mostly related to its role in synthesizing compounds which stimulate the nervous system. While not traditionally considered a sympathomimetic amine, studies which have co-administered tyrosine and stimulants demonstrate a synergistic effect. These studies suggest that tyrosine may potentiate the effects of both endogenous and supplemental norepinephrine and its mimetics (in the case of exogenous use) with respect to lipolysis, thermogenesis, and energy expenditure. Meaning that tyrosine may play a role in assisting norepinephrine to break up triglycerides and increase body heat transiently.
Citicoline (Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine)
Choline is an essential nutrient involved in numerous metabolic pathways, including DNA regulation and repair, protein function, and metabolism. Perhaps most importantly, the critical neurotransmitter acetylcholine is produced directly from free choline via cholinergic neurons. Acetylcholine is then responsible for a number of functions itself, most crucially as the compound which induces muscular contraction, and as the neuromodulator partially responsible for modulating risk/reward, arousal, and enhancing memory.
Choline’s essential role as a substrate for acetylcholine, and therefore brain development, is well documented in animal models. These studies demonstrate that levels of free maternal choline have a direct and fundamental impact on prenatal brain development, with the enhancements or deficits lasting into adulthood. Choline’s enhancing effect is particularly prominent in the hippocampus. In humans, the hippocampus is primarily involved in the consolidation of memory (taking short, episodic memory and translating it into long-term memory) and the learning of new information. Acetylcholine is a critical component in these processes, as mentioned above, and choline may therefore play a potential role in these processes as well by providing the substrate for acetylcholine synthesis.
Citicoline (Cytidine 5’-diphosphocoline), also known as CDP-choline, is a potentially superior form of choline due to its ability to cross the blood brain barrier. In fact, most studies with neurological or nootropic effects used this form. In that regard, studies in otherwise healthy, normal adults demonstrated meaningful and statistically significant impacts on working memory, recall, and attention.
Mucuna pruriens seed extract (50% L-dopa)
Mucuna pruriens is one of the popular medicinal plants of India and is known to contain various beneficial nutritional compounds. The main nutrient found in Mucuna pruriens is L-dopa, which acts as a natural source of dopamine. Prolactin is a hormone released by the pituitary gland, which is believed to exert anti-androgenic effects in men. Mucuna pruriens’ ability to support healthy dopamine levels may significantly reduce the release of prolactin hormone by the pituitary glands offering powerful benefits. In addition, clinical evidence suggests that Mucuna pruriens not only supports healthy growth hormone levels but also contains naturally occurring serotonin precursors to support mood, memory, and overall well-being. Clinically shown to support optimal balance of growth hormone, prolactin, serotonin and other beneficial hormones, Mucuna pruriens may also assist healthy weight management and stress support.
Caffeine Anhydrous and Theobromine
Caffeine and its fellow xanthine and metabolite, theobromine, are some of the most widely consumed, and perhaps some of the most reviewed, psychoactive compounds. Their physiological effects in a range of areas have been well-documented, including exercise performance, information processing, alertness and mood enhancement, attention, and awareness, along with its anti-lipogenic and lipolytic abilities.
Most importantly to Core ZAP, caffeine has been shown to have significant effects on exercise performance, even with ingestion in servings as small 3 to 9mg/kg/bw/day (the equivalent of 2 cups of standard coffee, for a 170lb male). In endurance training, possible explanations for caffeine’s performance-enhancing effects lie in its metabolic effects on both lean and fat tissue. It is suggested that caffeine’s potent lipolytic (the breakdown of fat tissue into fatty acids) and oxidative (the actual ‘burning’ of fat) action allow the body to utilize these sources during prolonged submaximal exercise. As a consequence, muscle glycogen is spared and available for use later in the training session. Practically speaking, this means caffeine is forcing your body to preferentially use fat tissue as a fuel source, while sparing the glycogen which gives you the full-bodied look!
In short-term exercise, both caffeine’s and theobromine’s demonstrated role in the inhibition of cyclic AMP- phosphodiesterases (PDE), adenosine receptor antagonism, and adrenoreceptor agonism come into play. These three pathways collectively stimulate lipolytic activity, boost fat metabolism, increase metabolic rate and energy expenditure, and regulate the body’s thermogenic activity. The practical results of activating these pathways are increases to the contractile force of both cardiac and skeletal muscle (harder flexion), an increase in energy expenditure (freeing up more caloric energy to be used in contraction), dilation of vasculature (better blood flow), and improvements to both nitrogen retention and skeletal muscle protein synthesis (key components to muscle building).
Theacrine (as TeaCrine® 40% yielding 100mg)
Camellia kucha is a tea plant endemic to the wild woods of Yunnan, where it grows above 1000 m of altitude. C. kucha has been consumed as a tea in the region for centuries, and has been found to contain a purine alkaloid, theacrine. C. kucha’s principal bioactive, theacrine is structurally similar to caffeine though exhibits important physiological differences – namely, that pharmacological studies in laboratory animals have demonstrated that it acts on the central nervous system causing sedation at lower servings. In larger servings, however, theacrine produces stimulation (as an adenosine agonist). The stimulant component of theacrine was demonstrated in clinical trials using healthy, normal adults, who reported increased feelings of (subjective) psychometric enhancement.
N-Methyltyramine and Hordenine
Hordenine (N,N-dimethyltyramine) and N-Methyltyramine are structurally similar alkaloids found in barley. The difference between the two is a single methyl group attached to the nitrogen atom of n-methyltyramine, turning into di-methyltyramine – or hordenine.
While research is still emerging, the limited animal data suggests that both hordenine and n-methyltyramine stimulate the central nervous system.